Date of Paper/Work


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Leadership (Ed.D.)

Type of Paper/Work



Chien-Tzu Candace Chou, Sarah Noonan, Donny Vigil


ABSTRACT This mixed-method study investigated higher education language instructors’ experiences during the pivot from face-to-face teaching to online teaching during the stay-at-home order in the Spring of 2020. Eleven participants discussed their approach to teaching online for the first time. The present study provided a comprehensive view of language instructors' use of technology, their experiences, challenges, and lessons learned during this time of online teaching. The findings from this study revealed several themes. In regard to challenges, faculty were concerned about ways to adapt technology, enhance student-instructor interaction, allocate time, and enhance student participation. For the opportunities, participants discussed ways to create a sense of community in the synchronous online classroom and effective ways to communicate with their students despite the lack of physical proximity. Participants’ final recommendations included evaluating their current instructional strategies and taking advantage of learning opportunities in their workplace. An analysis conducted using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) and Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) frameworks provided insight on how language instructors pivoted to teaching online amid a global pandemic. Each of the CoI presences offered an overview of how language instructors used different approaches to teach online. Similarly, the present study revealed that most class activities used during this time remained at the substitution level in the SAMR framework. This study concluded with recommendations for future research and specific recommendations for online language instructors. Keywords: COVID-19, higher education, online language instruction, Community of Inquiry, SAMR, social presence, cognitive presence, teaching presence, language instructors, language teaching, Zoom, challenges, opportunities, recommendations, student-instructor interaction, time, student participation, community, communication, instructional strategies, learning opportunities, effective online instruction, online language learning communities.


COVID-19, online language instruction, SAMR, instructional strategies, effective teaching, community of inquiry

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This file may be slow to open due to its size. For best results, right-click and select "save as..."

Included in

Education Commons