Photolysis of trenbolone acetate metabolites in the presence of nucleophiles: Evidence for metastable photoaddition products and reversible associations with dissolved organic matter.
Chromatography, liquid, contaminants in aquatic and terrestrial environments, humic substances, mass spectrometry, photolsis, trenbolone acetate analysis, water pollutants, chemical
Photolysis of trenbolone acetate (TBA) metabolites in the presence of various nitrogen-, sulfur-, or oxygen-containing nucleophiles (e.g., azide, ammonia, or thiosulfate, respectively) results in rapid (half-lives ∼20–60 min), photochemically induced nucleophile incorporation across the parent steroid’s trienone moiety. The formation of such nucleophile adducts limits formation of photohydrates, suggesting competition between the nucleophile and water for photochemical addition into the activated steroid structure. Analogous to previously reported photohydration outcomes, LC/MS analyses suggest that such photonucleophilic addition reactions are reversible, with more rapid elimination rates than thermal dehydration of photohydrates, and regenerate parent steroid structures. Beyond photonucleophilic addition pathways, we also found that hydroxylamine and presumed nucleophilic moieties in model dissolved organic matter (DOM; Fluka humic acid) can react via thermal substitution with TBA metabolite photohydrates, although this reaction with model DOM was only observed for photohydrates of trendione. Most nucleophile addition products [i.e., formed via (photo)reaction with thiosulfate, hydroxylamine, and ammonia] are notably more polar relative to the parent metabolite and photohydration products. Thus, if present, both nucleophilic adducts and bound residues in organic matter will facilitate transport and help mask detection of TBA metabolites in surface waters and treatment systems.
Environmental Science & Technology
Pflug, N.C., A.K. Kral, M.K. Hankard*, K.C. Breuckman*, E.P. Kolodziej, J.B. Gloer, K.H. Wammer, D.M. Cwiertny. 2020. "Photolysis of trenbolone acetate metabolites in the presence of nucleophiles: Evidence for metastable photoaddition products and reversible associations with dissolved organic matter." Environmental Science and Technology, 54:12181-12190, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.0c03821