Document Type



knot theory


AlphaKnot is a server that measures entanglement in AlphaFold-solved protein models while considering pLDDT confidence values. AlphaKnot has two main functions: (i) providing researchers with a webserver for analyzing knotting in their own AlphaFold predictions and (ii) providing a database of knotting in AlphaFold predictions from the 21 proteomes for which models have been published prior to 2022. The knotting is defined in a probabilistic fashion. The knotting complexity of proteins is presented in the form of a matrix diagram which shows users the knot type for the entire polypeptide chain and for each of its subchains. The dominant knot types as well as the computed locations of the knot cores (i.e. minimal portions of protein backbones that form a given knot type) are shown for each protein structure. Based mainly on the pLDDT confidence values, entanglements are classified as Knots, Unsure, and Artifacts. The database portion of the server can be used, for example, to examine protein geometry and entanglement-function correlations, as a reference set for protein modeling, and for facilitating evolutional studies. The AlphaKnot server can be found at

Published in

Nucleic Acids Research

Citation/Other Information

Wanda Niemyska, Pawel Rubach, Bartosz A. Gren, Mai Lan Nguyen, Wojciech Garstka, Fernando Bruno da Silva, Eric J. Rawdon, and Joanna I. Sulkowska. AlphaKnot: server to analyze entanglement in structures predicted by AlphaFold methods. Nucleic Acids Res., 50: W44-W50, 2022.