The Mismatched Expectations of iPad Integration Between Teachers and Students in Secondary Schools


Teacher Education

Date of this version


Document Type



iPad, tablet, expectations, technology, secondary education


While tablets and lightweight laptops have become commonplace in the K-12 classrooms, previous studies have shown mixed results on the effectiveness of these mobile devices with respect to learning. Based on the Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition pedagogical framework and the international society for technology in education technology standards, this mixed-methods research study examined what teachers in a large diverse urban school district in Midwest United States did in their classrooms and what students expected from learning with iPads. The results show that the majority of instructional activities are at the levels of Substitution and Augmentation that focus on information search, worksheet practice, and online textbook reading, even though student perceptions reflected strong expectation of utilizing iPads for tasks that involved communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking. Multiple factors that contributed to mismatched instructional patterns and student expectations are highlighted in the study.

Published in

Journal of Educational Computing Research

Citation/Other Information

Chou, C. C., & Block, L. (2019). The mismatched expectations of iPad integration between teachers and students in secondary schools. Journal of Education Computing Research, 57(5), 1281-1302. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633118784720