"I Don’t Know Buffalo Bill"; or, Hemingway and the Rhetoric of the Western
Argues that to understand Hemingway’s development as an artist, one must understand the cultural concept of the western adventure code, which connects writing to physical activity. First looks at the historical formation of the philosophy advanced by Theodore Roosevelt and Owen Wister. Then shows how Hemingway adapted the code, comparing “Big Two-Hearted River” to passages of Wister’s The Virginian (1902). Lastly, shows how Hemingway altered the ethos by subverting the myth of Custer’s Last Stand in For Whom the Bell Tolls.