Opening Bluebeard’s Closet: Writing and Aggression in Hemingway’s The Garden of Eden Manuscript
Manuscript study. Connects David’s ruthless father to the Bluebeard archetype and reads the African stories as “fantasies that express aggression and contrition through an elaborate network of contrapuntal imagery, turning violent emotions into narrative energy.” Roe posits that the past becomes immersed with the present, with Catherine connected to both the Maji-Maji warriors and the elephant. Also discusses David’s decreasing identification with his father through the evolution of the tales. Also published in Hemingway: Seven Decades of Criticism, edited by Linda Wagner-Martin, 311-27. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1998.