What Hemingway and a Rhetorical Theory of Narrative Can Do For Each Other: The Example of "My Old Man"
Defines progression, tension, and instability as structural elements that develop the narrative, arguing that Joe’s naïve confidence and seemingly stable relationship with his father represent these elements. Phelan focuses on ethical dimensions in his exploration of the differing authorial and narrative audiences, concluding that the story presents a profound moral conflict to the reader. Also published in Narrative as Rhetoric: Technique, Audiences, Ethics, Ideology, 87-104. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.