Grace, Good Works, and the Hemingway Ethic
Examines the evolution of the theme of grace and good works in several Hemingway texts, including “Today is Friday,” “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place,” “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” Across the River and into the Trees, and The Old Man and the Sea. Compares Hemingway’s vision of Jesus with that found in Bruce Barton’s best seller, The Man Nobody Knows (1925) and Max Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905). Both Barton and Hemingway envision Jesus as a “he-man” and an “outdoor man.” Sees Santiago and DiMaggio as having achieved grace through their courage, suffering, and professionalism.
The Calvinist Roots of the Modern Era