The Wages of War: Liberal Gullibility, Soviet Intervention, and the End of the Popular Front
Analyzes Hemingway’s characterization of the Spanish Civil War through the lens of For Whom the Bell Tolls. Focuses on the extent of Hemingway’s involvement in the war, the nuances of his political collaboration with communists, his evolving process for distinguishing the truth of the war, and obstacles he faced while writing the novel. Significantly revised version published as “Americans in Spain” in American Writers and the Approach of World War II, 1930-1941: A Literary History, 72-98. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.