"The Sea Change," Clara Dunn, and the Hemingway-Pfeiffer Connection
Biographical account arguing that Hemingway based the story’s lesbian character on Pauline and her relationship with Dunn, her old college friend and travelling companion. Draws on their correspondence as evidence of a potential homosexual attraction that spurred Hemingway’s suspicion and resentment.
Calloway, Catherine. “‘The Sea Change,’ Clara Dunn, and the Hemingway-Pfeiffer Connection.” Arkansas Review 45, no. 2 (Aug. 2014): 80-86.