The White Hunter: Edgar Rice Burroughs, Ernest Hemingway, Clint Eastwood, and the Act of Acting Male in Africa
Traces the evolving iconic images of the white male in Africa (ape-man and white hunter), beginning with Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes (1914) and concluding with Eastwood’s film White Hunter, Black Heart. Theorizes that despite their African settings, these white protagonists, including Macomber from “The Short Happy Life of Macomber,” are caught up in Western civilization’s obsessions with identity, gender, autonomy, and authenticity. Argues that in “Macomber” and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” Hemingway blends realism with fantasy to create African narratives in which “the notion of authenticity—being a true man—came to be intricately conjoined with the logic of escapism and the daydream—leaving the real world behind.” Concludes that “Macomber” represents an inverted Tarzan of the Apes in which the action takes place within the mind of the white male, far from the African setting.
Subverting Masculinity: Hegemonic and Alternative Versions of Masculinity in Contemporary Culture