A Dark Ill-Lighted Place: Fitzgerald and Hemingway, Philippe Count of Darkness and Philip Counter-Espionage Agent
Asserts that Fitzgerald’s Philippe is an “exact” portrait of Hemingway, tracing allusions, connections, and parodies throughout all four Philippe stories. Looks closely at Hemingway-Philippe’s Catholicism, noting that the church Hemingway most identified with was the crusading Catholicism of the Middle Ages. Finds The Fifth Column to be a direct response to Fitzgerald’s stories, pointing to biographical connections and similarities in theme, setting, and character.
F. Scott Fitzgerald: New Perspectives