The World of Spirit or the World of Sport? Figuring the Numbers in Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea
Gives a broad overview of the varying critical responses, often related to religion, aimed at explaining Hemingway’s fascination with numbers. Argues that the numbers reflect Santiago’s enthusiasm for baseball and high regard for Joe DiMaggio. Analyzes Santiago’s parallel to and fictional competition with DiMaggio, both aging heroes who must ultimately face defeat despite their resolve and strength of will.
The Faith of Fifty Million: Baseball, Religion, and American Culture