Dimensions of Love
Discusses Hemingway’s frequent reliance on derogatory terms in the novel (e.g. yellow rat, nigger, and bum) to mirror societal conditioning and prejudice. Argues against Toni Morrison’s well-known thesis that Hemingway maligned African American characters to elevate Morgan. Focuses on the flawed characters of Morgan and Gordon, arguing that Hemingway creates complex central characters whose many errors in judgment take them far from the moral center. See Morrison’s “Disturbing Nurses and the Kindness of Sharks” in Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination, 61-91. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.