A Portrait of the Artist as a Young or Old Innovator
Characterizes Hemingway as a conceptual novelist (plot driven writers with specific goals for their works) rather than an experimental novelist (character-driven writers with only vague intentions). Galenson argues that conceptual writers produce their greatest works early in their careers (e.g. The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms), while experimental writers tend to peak later in life. Points to Hemingway’s early innovations in dialogue and symbolism as further evidence for his classification.
Galenson, David W. “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young or Old Innovator.” Historical Methods 39, no. 2 (Spring 2006): 51-72.