"Black Sounds": Hemingway and Duende
Seeks to situate The Sun Also Rises and For Whom the Bell Tolls within the larger modernist context and Spanish milieu. Examines both novels through the lens of Spanish author Frederico García Lorca’s concept of duende, identifying liminality, primitivism, and ritual performance as key characteristics of duende in the Spanish arts. Suggests Jake’s and Jordan’s liminality conveys “the importance of portraying the ambiguity and messiness of real experience to creating a sense of authenticity” in Hemingway’s portraits of the modern world. Reads various social performances in both novels as compensatory acts seeking to replace rituals lost in the chaos of war and the modern era.