The Red and White Terrors: Civil War and Political Savagery in Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls
The Red Terror and White Terror are terms referring to the unspeakable rear-guard atrocities that were committed by both sides during the Spanish Civil War that engulfed Spain between 1936-1939. In For Whom the Bell Tolls Ernest Hemingway creates two unforgettable scenes depicting this political savagery-Pilar's story of the massacre by the peasants and anarchists from her town of their fascists-supporting neighbors and Maria's recounting of her rape and the murder of her parents and fellow townspeople by Franco's forces. This article examines these two scenes within the narrative of the Red and White Terrors in order to more fully appreciate their rich detail and historic accuracy.
The Hemingway Review