The Intertextual Hemingway
Argues that Hemingway borrows significant stylistic and thematic elements from other writers, at times to challenge their writing. Wagner-Martin detects instances of literary borrowing in Hemingway’s Spanish imagery, treatment of war, and protagonist type. She pays special attention to ways in which Hemingway’s heroes respond to those of Henry James, as well as Ford Madox Ford’s protagonist in The Good Soldier (1915), and concludes that some of the best elements of Hemingway’s fiction were inspired by his literary predecessors. Frequent references to The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, and The Garden of Eden.