Family Dynamics and Redefinitions of "Papa"-hood
As it traces the effects of influential recent scholarship on Hemingway's identities, the essay wonders why little attention has been paid to his biographical image as a father figure or how he represented the Papa-implied father in his fiction. Delves into family background, including accounts of Clarence Hemingway's parental abuse and depression, and identifies an "ambivalence about fatherhood" in many of Hemingway's works. Highlights conflicting depictions of Hemingway's parenting in biographies by Paul Hendrickson and James Hutchisson as well as the record of fathers and sons in Islands in the Stream. Suggests that as-yet unpublished letters may profitably lead to future scholarly discussions of the multiple meanings of "Papa."