James Baldwin and Ernest Hemingway: The Expatriate Artist as Organic Intellectual
Proposes ways to think of the two, expatriate writers as self-made thinkers and individualist artists concerned with matters of "justice and injustice," as Hemingway once put it in an interview, highlighted in an epigraph. Toumi's theoretical framework leans on ideas of the "intellectual vocation," exile, criticism, and other topics from the writings of Edward Said, Cornel West and other postmodern critics. Intertwines the parallel experiences and ideas that can be found in both authors: "Hemingway and Baldwin believed that the artist/intellectual must always be on the side of the weak…" Conclusion considers both writers in the context of recent American history and states they both recognized racial injustice as the nation's "existential wound." Extensive notes expand the author's perspectives and sources.
Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies