Toreo: The Moral Axis of The Sun Also Rises
Considers the spiritual dimensions of the toreo, which make it not only the center of the novel but also the center of the author’s artistic vision. Sees characters revolving around the center in concentric circles at varying distances—from Romero who is nearest the center to the uncomprehending Cohn, the farthest figure. Traces Hemingway’s transformation of the historical Cayetano Ordóñez into the mythic Romero. Previously published in Hemingway Review 6, no. 1 (Fall 1986): 88-99, and elsewhere.