Develops a theory of masculinity based on assertion rather than aggression, analyzing the presentation of manliness in The Old Man and the Sea and Homer’s Iliad. In contrast to Achilles’s political manifestation of manliness, Mansfield claims Santiago’s manliness is rendered nonpolitical because the natural setting of the sea lacks social context.
Frederking, Lauretta Conklin, ed. Hemingway on Politics and Rebellion. New York: Routledge, 2010.