Hemingway’s Religious Odyssey: The Afro-Cuban Connection in Two Stories and The Old Man and the Sea
Analyzes “One Trip Across,” “Nobody Ever Dies,” and The Old Man and the Sea according to the beliefs of the Afro-Cuban religions of Lukumi/Santería and Palo Monte. Grimes addresses the presence of the deity Ochún, identified with the Catholic Virgin of Cobre, showing that only her feminine ache (spirit) can bring balance and good luck to Santiago. Grimes draws on the testimony of Hemingway’s majordomo to support his assertion that Hemingway was deeply interested in the Afro-Cuban religions he encountered.
Grimes, Larry and Bickford Sylvester, eds. Hemingway, Cuba, and the Cuban Works. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2013.