Into the Terrain of the Bull: Hemingway’s "The Undefeated"
Argues that the early short story and the much later The Old Man and the Sea both depart from Hemingway’s standard lyrical form by employing a linear structure to tell the same tragic tale. Putnam demonstrates how Manuel and Santiago propel themselves toward tragic ends by entering enemy territory, in contrast to the typical code hero who survives danger by mastering his surroundings and accepting his fate. Concludes that the protagonists achieve a unique kind of victory through their deliberate encounters with death.
Grimes, Larry and Bickford Sylvester, eds. Hemingway, Cuba, and the Cuban Works. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2013.