Seminary/School of Divinity


Spring 5-2021

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Theology (M.A.)

Type of Paper/Work



John Froula

Second Advisor

Paul Niskanen

Third Advisor

William B. Stevenson


“The Word became flesh, and dwelt among us.” These words have quite literally changed the course of human history. To redeem man from sin, God sent His son Jesus to become Incarnate for man’s salvation. While on earth, Jesus instructed, healed, and sanctified those He encountered, and prepared them for the coming of God’s kingdom. After His Resurrection, Christ provided for His Church by establishing sacraments and the means to perpetuate these sacraments, so that He would always be present to His people. In addition, by remaining present through the sacraments, Jesus also provides a way for His people to grow in faith, which makes His people receptive to His work in their lives. Finally, through the sacraments, Jesus’ work of ruling, teaching, and sanctifying is perpetuated in the Church. In this thesis, I will argue that although Christ is present in a unique and substantial way in the Eucharist, He is likewise present in an analogous way in all the sacraments. This presence is facilitated by what I will refer to as “liturgical parables,” or the sacramental acts and symbols. This presence both incites the people to faith and perfects this faith in them, aiding the people with the merits of the Passion to grow in grace and virtue until the end of time. I will first examine the practices of the Old Law and how they point forward to Christ. Then, I will consider Jesus’ ministry on earth, followed by its continuation in the Church. Next, I will discuss the ways by which Christ is present in the sacraments, before concluding with practical considerations to aid the faithful to recognize Christ present in the liturgy and the sacraments.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.